The Second Italo-Ethiopian War, also referred to as the Second Italo-Abyssinian War, was a colonial war from 3 October 1935 to 5 May 1936 between the armed forces of the Kingdom of Italy and those of the Ethiopian Empire (also known as Abyssinia).
Ethiopia was defeated, annexed and subjected to military occupation until the defeat of Italy in East Africa in 1941, during the East African Campaign of the Second World War.
Italy and Ethiopia were members of the League of Nations yet the League was unable to control Italy or to protect Ethiopia when Italy violated Article X of the Covenant of the League of Nations.
The Abyssinia Crisis of 1935 is often seen as a clear demonstration of the ineffectiveness of the league.
The Italian victory coincided with the zenith of the popularity of dictator Benito Mussolini and the Fascist regime at home and abroad.
Ethiopia was consolidated with Eritrea and Italian Somaliland into Africa Orientale Italiana (Italian East Africa). Mussolini’s international popularity decreased when he endorsed the Anschluss (annexation of Austria) by Nazi Germany in 1938, beginning a political tilt toward Germany that destroyed Mussolini and the Fascist regime in 1943