1916: The Gallipoli Campaign ends in an Allied defeat and an Ottoman victory
The campaign was the only major Ottoman victory of the war.
In Turkey, it is regarded as a defining moment in the nation’s history, a final surge in the defence of the motherland as the Ottoman Empire crumbled.
The struggle formed the basis for the Turkish War of Independence and the declaration of the Republic of Turkey eight years later, with Mustafa Kemal (Kemal Atatürk) as President, who rose to prominence as a commander at Gallipoli.
The campaign is often considered to be the beginning of Australian and New Zealand national consciousness; 25 April, the anniversary of the landings, is known as “Anzac Day”, the most significant commemoration of military casualties and veterans in the two countries, surpassing Remembrance Day