A British and French naval attack began on the Dardanelles, which marked the start of the Gallipoli Campaign.
The campaign would last until 9 January 1916.
The peninsula forms the northern bank of the Dardanelles, a strait that provided a sea route to the Russian Empire, one of the Allied powers during the war.
Intending to secure it, Russia’s allies Britain and France launched a naval attack followed by an amphibious landing on the peninsula, with the aim of capturing the Ottoman capital of Constantinople.
The naval attack was repelled and after eight months’ fighting, with many casualties on both sides, the land campaign was abandoned and the invasion force was withdrawn to Egypt.
The campaign was the only major Ottoman victory of the war. In Turkey, it is regarded as a defining moment in the nation’s history, a final surge in the defence of the motherland as the Ottoman Empire crumbled.